Georgia is a South-Eastern European country and represents the shortest link connecting Europe and Asia. Georgia is placed between the Black and Caspian seas in the central and eastern part of the South Caucasus.
Georgia es an ancient country. The proto-Georgian tribes first appear in written history in the 12th century BC. The earliest evidence of wine to date has been found in Georgia, where 8000-year old wine jars were uncovered. Archaeological findings in ancient sources also reveal elements of state formations characterized by advanced metallurgy and goldsmith techniques that date back to the 7th century BC.
The classical period saw the rise of a number of early Georgian states, the principal of which was Colchis in the west and Iberia in the east. In Greek mythology, Colchis was the location of the Golden Fleece sought by Jason and the Argonauts in Apollonius Rhodius' epic tale Argonautica. The incorporation of the Golden Fleece into the myth may have derived from the local practice of using fleeces to sift gold from rivers. In the 4th century BC, a kingdom of Iberia – an early example of advanced state organization under one king and an aristocratic hierarchy – was established. After the Roman Republic completed its brief conquest of what is now Georgia in 66 BC, the area became a primary objective of what would eventually turn out to be over 700 years of protracted Irano–Roman geo-political rivalry and warfare. In 337 AD King Mirian III declared Christianity as the state religion, giving a great stimulus to the development of literature, arts, and ultimately playing a key role in the formation of the unified Georgian nation.
The Kingdom of Georgia reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries. This period during the reigns of David IV (r.1089–1125) and his granddaughter Tamar (r.1184–1213) has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or the Georgian Renaissance. This early Georgian renaissance, which preceded its Western European analogue, was characterized by impressive military victories, territorial expansion, and a cultural renaissance in architecture, literature, philosophy and the sciences. The Golden age of Georgia left a legacy of great cathedrals, romantic poetry and literature, and the epic poem The Knight in the Panther's Skin, the latter which is considered a national epic.
David IV suppressed dissent of feudal lords and centralized the power in his hands to effectively deal with foreign threats. In 1121, he decisively defeated much larger Turkish armies during the Battle of Didgori and liberated Tbilisi. The 29-year reign of Tamar, the first female ruler of Georgia, is considered the most successful in Georgian history. Tamar was given the title "king of kings". She succeeded in neutralizing opposition and embarked on an energetic foreign policy. Supported by a powerful military force, the King Tamar was able to build on the successes of her predecessors to consolidate an empire which dominated the Caucasus, and extended over large parts of present-day Azerbaijan, Armenia, and eastern Turkey as well as parts of northern Iran, until its collapse under the Mongol attacks within two decades after Tamar's death in 1213.
Human habitation in the Caucasus goes back to the remotest antiquity. The hominin remains discovered in Dmanisi, Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia (1.8 million years old) are the oldest outside Africa. The Dmanisi hominin remains are still making an impact on the paleontological community.
The vast majority of the Georgian population practices Orthodox Christianity. The Georgian Orthodox Church is one of the world's most ancient Christian Churches, and claims apostolic foundation by Saint Andrew. In the first half of the 4th century, Christianity was adopted as the state religion. The Church gained autocephaly during the early Middle Ages; it was abolished during the Russian domination of the country, restored in 1917 and fully recognized by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople in 1989. The country is very tolerant to other religions. As an example, guests of the Capital may visit a church, mosque, and synagogue built next to each other in Tbilisi's downtown.
Georgian traditions are directly linked to the history. Traditions are passed down from generation to generation, preserved and respected. Among the most common traditions can be named famous Georgian party (Supra) with traditional polyphonic songs and unique folk dance, also a well-known tradition of toast-making. For many centuries the traditional Winemaking, including unique “qvevri” (Clay Jar) method recognized as UNESCO cultural heritage, has been a main sector of Georgia's economy, as well as integral part of spiritual and cultural life of Georgians.
Every Georgian region offers something unique and new to see and learn. Many churches and monasteries, architectural monuments, national parks, seaside and mountainous places attract more and more visitors every year. Visitors may enjoy 22 micro-climate zones, including subtropical marshes, semi-deserts, alpine zones and snowy peaks, all within hundred kilometers from each other. Winter season is active from late November until April, and the summer holidays last from May to mid-October.
Georgia offers various types of tourism: adventure, culture, wine, archeological, ski, gastronomic, ethnographic, mountain, sea, etc.
On the website Mouzenidis.com you can learn about the most popular touristic attractions of Georgia, select a hotel and book your flight.